‘Er zijn heel wat clubs naar de klote gegaan omdat ze toevallig het veld hebben liggen bij een wijk waar veel Marokkaanse gezinnen wonen. Dan krijgen Marokkaanse jongens de overhand in de selectie, dat functioneert haast nergens.’ — Johan Derksen in Voetbal Inside
Postcolonialism or postcolonial studies is an academic discipline featuring methods of intellectual discourse that analyze, explain, and respond to the cultural legacies of colonialism and imperialism. Postcolonialism responds towards the human consequences of controlling a country and establishing settlers for the economic exploitation of the native people and their land. Drawing from postmodern schools of thought, postcolonial studies analyse the politics of knowledge (creation, control, and distribution) by analyzing the functional relations of social and political power that sustain colonialism and neocolonialism—the how and the why of an imperial regime’s representations (social, political, cultural) of the imperial colonizer and of the colonized people.
As a genre of contemporary history, postcolonialism questions and reinvents the modes of cultural perception—the ways of viewing and of being viewed. As anthropology, postcolonialism records human relations among the colonial nations and the subaltern peoples exploited by colonial rule. As critical theory, postcolonialism presents, explains, and illustrates the ideology and the praxis of neocolonialism, with examples drawn from the humanities—history and political science, philosophy and Marxist theory, sociology, anthropology, and human geography; the cinema, religion, and theology; feminism, linguistics, and postcolonial literature, of which the anti-conquest narrative genre presents the stories of colonial subjugation of the subaltern man and woman.
In 1972 writer John Berger and producer Mike Dibb created a four-part television series called ‘Ways of Seeing’, which rapidly became regarded as one of the most influential art programmes ever made. The series (later adapted into a book) criticize traditional Western cultural aesthetics by raising questions about hidden ideologies in visual images.
In the first programme, Berger examines the impact of photography on our appreciation of art from the past.
A large part of seeing depends upon habit and convention
Ways of seeing #2 (1972)
the portrayal of the female nude is an important part of the tradition of European art. Berger examines these paintings and asks whether they celebrate women as they really are or only as men would like them to be.
The nude in European painting convey some conventions in the way women were judged, in how they were seen (in society run by men).
What is a nude? Kenneth Clark: Being naked is being without clothes. The nude is a form of art.
John Berger: To be naked is to be oneself. To be nude is to be seen naked by others and yet not recognized for oneself. A nude has to be seen as an object in order to be nude.
Naked and shame. Shame towards to spectator: that the one who shames them.
Nude an awareness of being seen by the spectator.
Mirror symbol as vanity of woman.
Most female nudes in Western art history have been lined-up by their painters for the pleasure of the male spectator/owner who will assess and judge them as sights. Their nudity is another form of dress.
Passiveness: Nakedness is a sign of submission and not of active sexual love (in western oil paintings). Often looks and bodyposture is directed towards the spectator and is addressing his sexuality and not her sexuality. They are there to feed an appetite not to have one on their own. Being available and waiting for somebody.
Ideal nude as a humanist idealism. Celebrate women or the male voyeur.
Nudity as a garment and a uniform that says: i’m ready now for sexual pleasure.
“Bij al die campagnes gaat het een roep voor gelijke kansen en meer diversiteit aan universiteiten gepaard met pogingen het ‘foute’ verleden te kuisen. Critici spreken van slachtofferdenken. ‘Geschiedenis is geen therapie.’ En zeker geen ‘goed-slecht- allegorie’ zoals de Britse historica Cheryl Hudson schreef” — 2016.03.31-vk-p14
Gaat het zoeken naar een ‘counter-narrative’ over het kuisen van de geschiedenis? En is geschiedenis niet juist een therapeutische bezigheid waarin de overwinnaar’s gruwelijkheden tot heldendaden gemaakt worden?
“In dezelfde rede zei hij [Hongaarse holocaust-schrijver Imre Kertesz]: ‘ik heb in de Holocaust de condition humaine herkend, de eindhalte van het grote avontuur waar de Europese mens na tweeduizend jaar ethische en morele cultuur opuitgekomen is.’
Hoe te leven in het postscriptum van die eindhalte? Op welke waarden kun je je beroepen? Wat is smakeloos, en waarom?”
– Arnon Grunberg