…“race is the child of racism, not the father. And the naming of “the people” has never been a matter of genealogy and physiognomy so much as one of hierarchy.” —Ta-Nehisi Coates, Between the world and me, 2015
Ijeoma Oluo: “For a white woman who had grown up with only a few magazines of stylized images of blackness to imagine herself into a real-life black identity without any lived black experience, to turn herself into a black history professor without a history degree, to place herself at the forefront of local black society that she had adopted less than a decade earlier, all while seeming to claim to do it better and more authentically than any black person who would dare challenge her—well, it’s the ultimate “you can be anything” success story of white America…
“The NAACP is standing by Rachel Dolezal, the Washington state woman who pretends to be black—despite the fact her own white parents say she’s white with “traces of Native American.” Dolezal claims she was born in a teepee, and that as a child, she hunted her food with bows and arrows—all claims her family denies. She’s a professor of Africana Studies at Eastern Washington University, and also maintains a column at The Inlander where she publishes as if she’s black.”
> Read the NAACP’s Full Statement on Rachel Dolezal | Colorlines
#2: Comedian-actor Dave Chappelle explains racism:
“Things like racism are institutionalized. You might not know any bigots. You feel like ‘Well, I don’t hate Black people so I’m not a racist,’ but you benefit from racism. Just by the merit, the color of your skin. The opportunities that you have, you’re privileged in ways that you might not even realize because you haven’t been deprived of certain things. We need to talk about these things in order for them to change.”
#3: On his blog, Scott Woods Makes Lists, poet Woods posted:
“The problem is that white people see racism as conscious hate, when racism is bigger than that. Racism is a complex system of social and political levers and pulleys set up generations ago to continue working on the behalf of whites at other people’s expense, whether whites know/like it or not. Racism is an insidious cultural disease. It is so insidious that it doesn’t care if you are a white person who likes Black people; it’s still going to find a way to infect how you deal with people who don’t look like you.
“Yes, racism looks like hate, but hate is just one manifestation. Privilege is another. Access is another. Ignorance is another. Apathy is another, and so on. So while I agree with people who say no one is born racist, it remains a powerful system that we’re immediately born into. It’s like being born into air: you take it in as soon as you breathe.
“It’s not a cold that you can get over. There is no anti-racist certification class. It’s a set of socioeconomic traps and cultural values that are fired up every time we interact with the world. It is a thing you have to keep scooping out of the boat of your life to keep from drowning in it. I know it’s hard work, but it’s the price you pay for owning everything.”
A new study by Redzo Mujcic and Paul Frijters, two economists at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia, have proved that white privilege is real.
The two researchers spearheaded an ambitious experiment to see how race and privilege play out in everyday life. The researchers tasked 29 young adult riders of white, Asian, Indian, and black descent to board buses with an empty transit card and see whether or not drivers would let them ride for free. Participants were told to say, “I do not have any money, but I need to get to the [XX] station,” with XX station being out of walking distance. After analyzing more than 1,500 social interactions, what the researchers found was astounding.
Asian and white participants were able to ride for free at nearly identical rates (72 percent), but bus drivers often declined the requests of black and Indian passengers. Fifty-one percent of free-ride requests from Indian riders were honored, while requests from black riders were twice as likely as those from whites and Asians to be turned down, with only 36 percent being able to board the bus and ride without paying.
The disparities continued even when the subjects were dressed in business suits or military uniforms, with 67 percent of black and 83 percent of Indian passengers being allowed to ride for free compared with 97 percent of whites. Interestingly, black drivers also opted to give white riders a free pass in larger numbers than black riders (83 percent versus 68 percent), further highlighting the insidiousness of systematic racism and the engrained privilege white people enjoy.
This privilege, or rather white folks’ ability to avoid painful racial macro- and microaggressions, is felt in nearly every sector of society. In the workforce it manifests in employers choosing to interview candidates with “white” names over those with “ethnic” ones. In universities it shows up in schools giving preferential treatment to the children of alumni or donors while refusing to factor in race. And in the justice system, white privilege means African Americans make up 57 percent of the people in state prison for drug offenses, even though blacks and whites use drugs at similar rates and whites sell drugs at higher rates.
“Creolization is the process in which Creole cultures emerge in the New World. As a result of colonization there was a mixture between people of indigenous, African, and European descent, which came to be understood as Creolization. Creolization is traditionally used to refer to the Caribbean; although not exclusive to the Caribbean it can be further extended to represent other diasporas. The mixing of people brought a cultural mixing which ultimately led to the formation of new identities. It is important to emphasize that Creolization also is the mixing of the “old” and “traditional,” with the “new” and “modern.” Furthermore, creolization occurs when participants actively select cultural elements that may become part of or inherited culture. Robin Cohen states that Creolization is a condition in which “the formation of new identities and inherited culture evolve to become different from those they possessed in the original cultures,” and then creatively merge these to create new varieties that supersede the prior forms.”
The capitalized Black vs lowercase white:
“I have chosen to capitalize the word “Black” and lowercase “white” throughout this book. I believe “Black” constitutes a group, an ethnicity equivalent to African-American, Negro, or, in terms of a sense of ethnic cohesion, Irish, Polish, or Chinese. I don’t believe that whiteness merits the same treatment. Most American whites think of themselves as Italian-American or Jewish or otherwise relating to other past connections that Blacks cannot make because of the familial and national disruptions of slavery. So to me, because Black speaks to an unknown familial/national past it deserves capitalization.” (Touré, 2011 p VII)
Touré, Who’s afraid of Post-Blackness, Free Press, 2011
“I write “Black” with a capital B because this term addresses first and foremost political and historical dimensions of the concept of Blackness, and relates only indirectly to skin complexion. The term “white”, in contrast, is not capitalised, since this would obscure the term “Black” as an act of political empowerment and as a socio-political construct.” (Adusei-Poku, 2014, p 7)
Nana Adusei-Poku, A Stake in the Unknown, Hogeschool Rotterdam Uitgeverij, 2014
According to a new study published in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, the terms “black” and “African-American” evoke stark differences in the way white people perceive individuals labeled as one or the other.
Erika Hall, a professor at Emory University’s business school and the lead author of the study, says she was inspired to undertake the inquiry after noticing that she routinely found white people fumbling over their words when it came to choosing between the two terms in polite cocktail conversation. While she identifies as a woman of color comfortable with both black and African-American, she decided to look into the matter as a social scientist to establish if the distinction was purely semantic.
As it turns out, the terms differ significantly in the kinds of ideas they evoke.
“African-Americans” are respected more than “blacks.” Hall and her colleagues carried out a number of experiments that found that, among white Americans, the term “black” elicits more negative associations and lower perception of ability across the board than “African-American.”
The most compelling study shows that when viewing job applications, white participants made dramatically different estimations of an applicant’s salary, probability of holding a managerial role, estimated education level and socioeconomic status based on whether they were identified as black or African-American. Black was consistently viewed less favorably.
“By significant margins, white participants believed that the black applicant was lower status, with less education and less annual income than the African-American applicant. Moreover, only 38% of participants who evaluated the black applicant believed he could be in a managerial position, compared to 70% of participants who evaluated the African-American application,” wrote Hall in a description of her findings at the Washington Post.
Jane Elliot Experiment with 3rd graders following the Assasination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Cool = control, transcendental balance, moderation in coldness, unruffled, nonchalant, imperturbable, detached, High degree of self-control, aloofness
The concept of cool is a “West African/Afro-American metaphor of moral easthetics accomplishment” (R. Farris Thompson).
Primary methaphoric extension is …”control, having the value of composure in the individual context, social stability in the context of the group. […] Put another way, coolness has to do with transcendental balance.”
Spike Lee interviewed by Jorge Ramos.
“Nowadays, amongst a lot of our misguided young black minds, they think that if you are trying to get your education, if you speak correctly, you are trying to act white. You are a “sell-out”, an “Oreo”. Media -in general- have done a lot to push that.”
“The only time it was really caught was Rodney King […] everybody is an investigative reporter now… with a phone. People opposed -just like Ramsey did- and they are letting the world see what is happening.”
“People who get in trouble are the people who forget they’re black. You can’t think: “I’m successful that I just reached another realm and I’m in a so-called post-racial America […]. That bull-shit! Because now we have an Afro-American president that race no longer matters. There are times -even today- that it is hard for me to catch a cab sometimes. In New York City.
Ramos: “So do you feel discriminated constantly?”
Lee: ” You are made aware of it. I’m not complaining. It’s just something you grow up with.”
“I can’t predict the future, but there are a lot of people who believe that when our president put his hand on Abraham Lincoln’s bible and did the oath that ‘hocus-pocus-abracadabra-poof’ we are in a post-racial world”
Wat betekenen huidskleur en ras vandaag de dag? Antropologe Angela Roe gaat op zoek naar een antwoord. Tijdens haar road trip door de wijken Barber, Seru Fortuna, Otrobanda, Janwé en Spaanse Water vertellen dertig Curaçaoënaars hun verhaal.
Het doel van de documentaire Sombra di Koló is het doorbreken van het taboe op de onderwerpen “kleur” en “ras,” en het op gang brengen van een constructieve nationale dialoog over een onderwerp dat ons allen beïnvloedt. Want iedereen heeft een kleur, en iedereen heeft een verhaal.
“Uiteindelijk is de bottom line van veel racisme in Nederland segregatie. Onbekend maakt onbemind. Nederland heeft een ‘de facto apartheidsstelsel’, zoals beschreven in een rapport van Binnenlandse Zaken (Polarisatie en radicalisering in Nederland 2009, p.53). Maar dát mag je dan weer niet zeggen. Links heeft niks geleerd van het falen van het ‘multiculturalisme’, een beleid dat in de praktijk neerkwam op het jarenlang faciliteren van segregatie. De term ‘racisme’ veroorzaakt kortsluiting bij zowel de linkse als de rechtse kerk. ‘Als je dat woord gebruikt, reproduceer je het’, is onder meer de kritiek. Alsof het vanzelf zal verdwijnen als we het woord niet gebruiken. De afgelopen tien jaar werd ‘het benoemen van problemen’ een mantra in Nederland. Maar zodra je racisme wilde benoemen, werd je met wezenloze frames monddood gemaakt. Van ‘je neemt een slachtofferrol aan’ tot ‘racisme is een Amerikaans concept’. Het is in Nederland hoog tijd voor een scherp, breed en inhoudelijk racismedebat. Laten we de Nederlanders die de discussie over het institutioneel racisme in dit land willen aangaan daarom niet langer wegzetten als ‘zeurpieten’ of ‘radicalen’.” (Zihni Özdil in De Volkskrant dd 29 november 2013)
“My consciousness never really allowed me to think of myself as anything else but Black or a person of African descent. Anyone who has had the opportunity to get to know me never questions my race. They never question me being Black. Never. Regardless of my complexion. But for those who don’t necessarily know me, based on my phenotype and their perception, I’ve had some interesting experiences.”
Historicus Zihni Özdil (32) doceert aan de Erasmus Universiteit van Rotterdam. Hij is bezig met promotie-onderzoek naar het proces van secularisering in Turkije, in de periode 1920-1960. Zijn grootvader kwam als gastarbeider naar Nederland. Voor De Correspondent wordt hij door Lex Dohlmeijer geinterviewd over ‘institutioneel racisme’. Hieronder enkele ‘cut-outs’.
Özdil aan het woord over de het westen van de 19e eeuw en ook de eeuwen daarvoor (van de transatlantische slavernij): “Religie, politiek, kunst en kunst, de wetenschap, […], dat was allemaal een culturele productie bedoelt om ‘de Ander’ als minder te doen laten overkomen. En dat heeft vandaag de dag nog steeds een heel diepe uitwerking.“